X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful surface analytical technique that allows determination of elements at a material surface and also how the elements are bound to each other. It is depth sensitivity can be controlled from several nm to microns via sputtering or angle-resolved measurement. The method finds use in a diverse range of application areas, and from fundamental science to industrial research, product development and QC.
Directly after the official opening of 2MILab at the start of January, a new AXIS Supra+ XPS system from Kratos will be installed and users trained. The highly automated system enables efficient routine analyses, while at the same time being a powerful research instrument, with modifications to allow operando studies of model solar cells under illumination, and the injection of gaseous molecules to observe catalyst surfaces in action. It will be equipped with Ar-cluster sputtering for gentle sputtering of organic materials, enabling removal of surface contamination, novel depth profiling studies etc. The instrument will further be equipped with UPS (ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy) allowing highly accurate measurement of the binding energy of valence-level electrons. This can in turn be used to determine work function, of interest in many areas including corrosion, solar cells and batteries. It can also be used to study surface adsorbed molecules due to it’s extreme surface sensitivity. Finally, it will offer an access port for air-sensitive samples to be transferred directly from a glovebox, of relevance in lithium-ion battery research among other applications.